Tag Archives: prepozitii engleza

By Vs Until


By vs. until

 

Q:

I wonder if you could explain the difference between “by” and “until” as in these sentences:

He will be away until Monday.
He will be back by Monday.

Ozan Sezgin
isezgin@hotmail.com

A:

Both words until and by indicate “any time before, but not later than.”

To understand the difference in usage between until and by, it’s necessary to distinguish between those verbs that express a continuous action, such as stay, live, walk, drive, sleep, etc., and those that express an action performed once, such as arrive, leave, return, finish, pay, crash, etc.

Use until (NOT by) with verbs that express continuity, as “be away” (stay in another place) does in the first sentence in the question. Until may be a preposition as in sentences (a), (b), and (c), or a subordinating conjunction, as in sentences (d) and (e):

(a) They lived in a small apartment until June 1998.
(b) We’re going to drive until dark.
(c) Harry was so tired that he slept until noon.
(d) The baby didn’t walk until he was 18 months old.
(e) Did you really speak only French until you were ten?

These verbs refer to a continuous action, as opposed to those verbs referring to one action performed at a specific point of time.

Use by (NOT until) with verbs referring to one action performed at a specific point of time, in affirmative sentences and in questions. “Be back” (return to the original place) is an example of this kind of verb in the second sentence in the question. Here are other examples:

(f) You have to finish by August 31.
(August 31 is the last day you can finish; you may finish before this date.)
(g) Jack had left his office by 5:15, so he didn’t know about the burglary.
(Jack left his office at some time before 5:15 or at 5:15. 5:15 is the last possible time he could have left.)
(h) If the plane arrives by noon, we’ll have lunch at the new restaurant near the airport.
(The plane will have arrived at some time before noon, or at noon at the latest.)
(i) Do we have to pay our taxes by April 15?
(Is April 15 the last date when we can pay our taxes?)

However, with negative verbs referring to a point of time, we can also use until. Sentences (f) through (i) are changed to their negative forms in (j) through (m) below, and may also take until, with a slightly different meaning:

(j) You don’t have to finish until August 31.
(You can stay in the situation of not having finished for all the time up to August 31, but that is the last day you will have to finish.)
(k) Jack didn’t leave his office until 5:15, so he knew about the burglary.
(Jack stayed in the situation of not leaving his office during all the time before 5:15, but at 5:15 he left the office)
(l) Even if the plane doesn’t arrive until noon, I’ll still be there.
(The plane is in the air, and might arrive at noon, not before.)
(m) We don’t have to pay our taxes until April 15.
(We don’t have to pay our taxes for all the time before April 15; on April 15 the situation changes, and we have to pay our taxes.)

Consider these negative sentences (j) through (m) as referring to a continuous state: a situation of not “being” something or not “doing” something, which continues up to a certain point, the time that is mentioned. At that certain point, an action – finishing, leaving, arriving, paying in these sentences – takes place.

The slight difference in meaning of (j) through (m) in contrast with (f) through (i) is that in (f) through (i) the action of finishing, leaving, arriving or paying may occur before the time mentioned, whereas in (j) through (m) the action occurs at, not before, the time mentioned.

 

Source www.pearsonlongman.com – message board


Under vs. Below


What is the difference between “under” and “below”?

Monday, July 29, 2013

Several readers have recently asked about the difference between the prepositions under and below, which are often interchangeable. 

Here are four facts about under and below that will help you understand the difference between these words and use them correctly:

1. Under is used much more widely. When you’re not sure which word to use, use under. It is more likely to be correct. 

2. All the common uses of below are related to the idea of “lower or less than,” as in these examples:

  • The sun disappeared below the horizon. 
  • Temperatures were below normal all week. 
  • The game is suitable for children below the age of 10. 
  • There are many more fish below the surface of the water.

3. Under can have the same meaning as below, as in these examples:

  • We sat under a tree and rested. (Or, We sat below a tree and rested.)
  • Draw a line under each word you don’t know. (Or, Draw a line below each word you don’t know.)

   but under can also mean “guided or controlled by,” as in: 

  • The cafe is under new management. 
  • The army captured three forts while under the general’s command. 
  • Under the terms of the lease, rent will be due on the first of each month.

 

4. Under is often used in expressions in which it has a special meaning. Look at the most common collocations with  under to see this more clearly:

  • Hudson tried to get her weight under control with drastic diets. [under control=able to be managed successfully]
  • Under normal circumstances, Steinmark might have wished to spend more time in Los Angeles [under normal circumstances=in a normal situation]
  • You have to be able to think under pressure, [under pressure=in a stressful situation]
  • Under the law, hospitals have to treat any patient who needs emergency medical attention. [under the law=according to the law]

 Source: Merriam-Webster’s Learner Dictionary


Go up vs. go upstairs


upstairsadverb, meaning to an upper floor of a building or any place elevated or high.

Atunci inseamnca ca I’m going upstairs ma duc un etaj/mai multe etaje mai sus, urc la alt nivel etc. – schimb locatia

upadverb, adjective, preposition (also noun and verb), meaning in or into a higher position or level (as adverb) – indica directia

Si atunci ar fi logic sa nu le pot folosi la fel.

I’m going upstairs. – Ma duc sus, adica la etaj (poate am dormitorul la etaj).

I’m going up. – Ma duc sus (de exemplu cu liftul).

 

She’s upstairs. DAR NU – She is up.

Let’s go upstairs. DAR NU – Let’s go up.

We are moving up. DAR NU We are moving upstairs.


Cu sau fara prepozitie sau prepozitia corecta – Greseli uzuale


gresit corect expresia corecta
in a day like this on on a day like this
in this week/month fara this week
in holidays on on holidays
in a trip on on a trip
going in the city (cu sensul de iesire in oras) going out
on the street in in the street
in my birthday on I am going out on my birthday.
for For my birthday I want a pink poney.
I told to her fara I told her
fara I asked him
I recommend to you/I recommend you to try
Aici ne lovim de context, oricum cele doua formulari de mai sus sunt gresite.
Iti recomad tie un restaurant Corect gramatical, dar nu prea se foloseste I can recommend the new restaurant to you.
Mai simplu I recommend the new restaurant.
Te recomand pe tine cuiva to dupa you I can recommend you to…
Iti dau un sfat fara I recommend you do some exercise.
I am in the train/bus etc. on I am on the train
she has trouble in She is in trouble
you can call to me fara you can call me
with the car/train/plane by by train
ride on the bike fara ride the bike
give to me (the book) fara give me
tell to me (the story( fara show me
show to me (the gift) fara tell me
pass to me (the salt) fara pass me
Sunt verbe pentru care ideea de parteneriat exista, trebuie sa dai cuiva, sa spui cuiva, sa arati cuiva, de aceea nu am nevoie de to
explain me to explain to me
Explain poate fi folosit ori ca explicatie oferita cuiva, atunci explain TO cutarescu, sau ca o explicatie generala, pentru un public mai larg, intr-o situatie ca un examen sau o prezentare etc. Explain to me your theory. Please explain your theory.

Prepozitii des intalnite


timp/durata inteles locatie inteles amplasare unde directie inteles
IN in two hours peste doua ore we are/live in New York suntem intr-un loc anume in the middle of in mijloc
 the morning, the evening She is in school inca merge la scoala, nu este fizic acum la scoala in the air in aer
AT at 2 o’clock la o ora oarecare She is at school este la scoala
 lunch, dinner, night, midnight She is at her grandma’s este la bunica
I am at the corner of… sunt la coltul…
I’ll meet you at the shop ne vedem la magazin
TO from 3 to 2 de la pana la I am going to work merg intr-acolo
I am going to Paris* merg intr-acolo
FROM from 3 to 2 de la pana la She is from Holland de unde este I’m coming from New York de unde vin (fizic, nu de unde ma trag)
From today/next week on incepand de… from left to right de la … la
FOR for two hours timp de… I am leaving for New York.** plec spre
for a year
for my birthday pentru cand
for next week

in vs. into


Se intampla ca uneori sa se puna intrebarea in sau into.

Este simplu, in este static, daca vreti, iar into implica miscare:

the water in the bottle, we are in the room, there is someone in the hous dar

I am jumping into the pool, they are moving into the open, I don’t want to go into a debate

Aici, daca suntem atenti sesizam si diferenta intre verbe to be = to exist, nu este implicata o schimbare de statut, transformare, miscare vs. jumping, moving, go, toate verbe care implica miscare.


In sau within


Un alt cuvintel care da bataie de cap unora..within. O fi in sau within?

Definitia lui  within (cum apare in dictionarul Oxford Online)

preposition

  • inside (something): the spread of fire within the building

Este gresit sa spun sa spread of fire in the building? Nu, dar intelesul va fi usor modificat.

We want to prevent the spread of fire within the building. Adica nu vrem ca un foc produs in cladire sa se intinda, sa ia amploare in interiorul acesteia.

We want to prevent fires in the building. Vrem sa impiedicam incendiile in cladire. La modul general. Nu vrem sa avem incendii.

We want to prevent fires within the building.  Vrem sa impiedicam incendiile in interiorul cladirii. Nu vrem sa se extinda in afara. Sau poate vrem sa ne limitam doar la incendiile din interiorul cladirii, nu si la cele din afara ei.

  • inside the range of (an area or boundary): property located within the green belt –  delimitare, granite. Nu pot folosi in.
  •  inside the range of (a specified action or perception): we were within sight of the finish, we are within targets – incadrare in anumite conditii

We were in sight of the finish. Nu este gresit, dar nu implica ideea de incadrare, ci doar ca eram aproape de linia finala.

  •  inside the bounds set by (a concept, argument, etc.): full cooperation within the terms of the treaty – in limitele impuse de conditie si nu mai mult. Nu pot folosi in.
  • not further off than (used with distances): he lives within a few miles of Oxford - la o anumita distanta de… . Nu pot folosi in.
  • occurring inside (a particular period of time): tickets were sold out within two hours; 33 per cent offended again within two years of being released - incadrare intr-o anumita perioada de timp

Tickets were sold in two hours. Din punct de vedere “tehnic” este acelasi lucru. Fapt este ca biletele s-au vandut in doua ore. Prin within insa se subintelege ca s-au vandut extrem de rapid. Pe cand varianta cu  “in” nu prezinta aceasta conotatie. Pur si simplu a durat doua ore pana s-au vandut biletele.

adverb

  • inside; indoors: enquire within – trebuie sa intru inauntru ca sa ma informez
  •  internally or inwardly: beauty coming from within - din interior

Prepozitii


Prepozitii

 

Prepozitiile pot fi alt subiect aducator de dileme. Caci daca in limba romana se spune bine ati venit in Romania, ar trebui sa fie la fel si in engleza, si voi spune deci welcome in Romania… Nu chiar.

De cele mai multe ori in e in si pe e pe, dar exista situatii in care anumite verbe cer o anumita prepozitie si vor putea fi urmate doar de aceasta/acestea.

Cum este chiar exemplul lui welcome:

-          Welcome to

-          Believe in

-          Agree with

-          Argue about

La fel, exista verbe care nu mai cer prepozitie, pentru ca, intr-un anumit fel, prepozitia deja este inclusa in sensul verbului. De exemplu enter, atunci cand vorbim despre acces (din Webster Online):

1: togo or come in

Atunci in este redundant, iar corecta este expresia enter the building/room etc., nu enter in the building.

Cand avem de a face cu verbe urmate de prepozitii (care insa nu sunt phrasalverbs!), este bine sa le invat pe acestea cu tot cu prepozitie, pentru a evita expresii de genul welcome in Romania.

Aici imi mai vine in minte un aspect, si anume folosirea unei prepozitii tot cand nu este nevoie, pentru a descrie o actiune, pentru care exista un verb specific. Exemplu concret, in limba romana merg cu masina – asadar, I am going with the car. Brrrrrr…

Eventual I am goingby car, sau, mai simplu, I am driving

I am taking the water out of the bottle… Adica pouring

Important este sa imi fac timp si sa invat un vocabular bogat, care sa-mi permita sa am o conversatie fluenta sau sa scriu intr-un mod placut, care sa nu zgarie pe ochi (bineinteles, daca acesta este scopul. Daca scopul este sa vorbesc prin semne si cu mai putine vorbe, pot merge si pe varianta vocabular de baza, ca intelege el ce vreaus a spun…).


Caxton

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