Tag Archives: engleza fara profesor

“Hidden” verbs


Dupa cum sugereaza denumirea, aceste verbe sunt “ascunse”, mascate de o expresie. Cu ce scop? Sa vedem…

We must take into consideration the following… – ar putea fi inlocuit cu consider

The consumer must make intelligent choices – verbul de fapt este choose

We need to perform an analysis – verbul ascuns este analyze

 

Intrebarea este daca se schimba sensul propozitiei, neutilizand verbele respective.

We must take into consideration these facts. – We must consider these facts.

The consumer must make intelligent choices. – The consumer needs to choose carefully.

We need to perform an analysis. – We need to analyze.

In primul rand se pierde , caracterul, impactul “direct” al verbului. In al doilea rand de ce as folosi trei cuvinte in loc de unul?

 

Mai exista uneori tendinta de a folosi substantive in locul verbului potrivit:

We are going to make a reduction…. – We are going to reduce

Nu este gresita exprimarea, dar exprimarea prin verb este mai directa, are un impact mai mare si suna mai decisiv.

 

Ramane la latitudinea fiecarui utilizator cum, daca si in ce masura foloseste aceste “hidden verbs”. Amintiti-va insa de expresia “less is more”, care in cazurile de fata mi se pare potrivita.

 

 

 


DO help me!


Auxiliar pentru Present Tense Simple si Past Tense Simple – poate fi explicat ca “ajutor” in formarea intrebarilor si propozitiilor negative sau a raspunsurilor pentru yes/no questions.

 

Intrebari – Present Tense – “do” pozitia I

She has pizza for breakfast. 

Does she have pizza for breakfast?

 

I always have a shower in the evening. 

Do you always have a shower in the evening?

(Dupa cum am mai mentionat pe site in vorbirea uzuala se utilizeaza si intrebari care incep cu subiectul: You jog? She came late? – mai mult ca exclamatie care exprima surprinderea legata de situatie.)

 

Intrebari – Present Tense cu Question Words – “do” pozitia II

What are you eating?

How old are you?

When is she coming?

Where is he?

Asadar,

Where do you live? Dar nu

Where you live?

 

Intrebari – Past Tense – “do” pozitia I

I ate earlier.

Did you eat earlier?

 

Negatie – Present Tense

I eat fruit. 

I don’t eat fruit.

 

Negatie – Past Tense

I had breakfast. 

I didn’t have breakfast.

 

Yes/No Questions – Present Tense

Do you jog?

Yes, I do./No, I don’t.

 

Yes/No Questions – Past Tense – vezi “used to”

 


By Vs Until


By vs. until

 

Q:

I wonder if you could explain the difference between “by” and “until” as in these sentences:

He will be away until Monday.
He will be back by Monday.

Ozan Sezgin
isezgin@hotmail.com

A:

Both words until and by indicate “any time before, but not later than.”

To understand the difference in usage between until and by, it’s necessary to distinguish between those verbs that express a continuous action, such as stay, live, walk, drive, sleep, etc., and those that express an action performed once, such as arrive, leave, return, finish, pay, crash, etc.

Use until (NOT by) with verbs that express continuity, as “be away” (stay in another place) does in the first sentence in the question. Until may be a preposition as in sentences (a), (b), and (c), or a subordinating conjunction, as in sentences (d) and (e):

(a) They lived in a small apartment until June 1998.
(b) We’re going to drive until dark.
(c) Harry was so tired that he slept until noon.
(d) The baby didn’t walk until he was 18 months old.
(e) Did you really speak only French until you were ten?

These verbs refer to a continuous action, as opposed to those verbs referring to one action performed at a specific point of time.

Use by (NOT until) with verbs referring to one action performed at a specific point of time, in affirmative sentences and in questions. “Be back” (return to the original place) is an example of this kind of verb in the second sentence in the question. Here are other examples:

(f) You have to finish by August 31.
(August 31 is the last day you can finish; you may finish before this date.)
(g) Jack had left his office by 5:15, so he didn’t know about the burglary.
(Jack left his office at some time before 5:15 or at 5:15. 5:15 is the last possible time he could have left.)
(h) If the plane arrives by noon, we’ll have lunch at the new restaurant near the airport.
(The plane will have arrived at some time before noon, or at noon at the latest.)
(i) Do we have to pay our taxes by April 15?
(Is April 15 the last date when we can pay our taxes?)

However, with negative verbs referring to a point of time, we can also use until. Sentences (f) through (i) are changed to their negative forms in (j) through (m) below, and may also take until, with a slightly different meaning:

(j) You don’t have to finish until August 31.
(You can stay in the situation of not having finished for all the time up to August 31, but that is the last day you will have to finish.)
(k) Jack didn’t leave his office until 5:15, so he knew about the burglary.
(Jack stayed in the situation of not leaving his office during all the time before 5:15, but at 5:15 he left the office)
(l) Even if the plane doesn’t arrive until noon, I’ll still be there.
(The plane is in the air, and might arrive at noon, not before.)
(m) We don’t have to pay our taxes until April 15.
(We don’t have to pay our taxes for all the time before April 15; on April 15 the situation changes, and we have to pay our taxes.)

Consider these negative sentences (j) through (m) as referring to a continuous state: a situation of not “being” something or not “doing” something, which continues up to a certain point, the time that is mentioned. At that certain point, an action – finishing, leaving, arriving, paying in these sentences – takes place.

The slight difference in meaning of (j) through (m) in contrast with (f) through (i) is that in (f) through (i) the action of finishing, leaving, arriving or paying may occur before the time mentioned, whereas in (j) through (m) the action occurs at, not before, the time mentioned.

 

Source www.pearsonlongman.com – message board


Other, others and another


Pronoun

Others can’t understand. – people

 Tell the others, perhaps they want to come. – people

There are two cookies left.  You have one and I’ll have the other. - things

 

 Adjective – used with a noun

You are talking about my other friend. – different person

 Other people don’t care about this. – different people

 

 

Another time maybe. – not now

 Another company is hiring for this position. – different

We need another ticket. – additional

 

 

 

 


How about… vs. What about…


“How about…?” and “What about…?” Are they the same?

Monday, July 15, 2013

Question

When do we use What about…? and How about…?,  especially in questions?  – terin86, Philippines

Answer

Thank you for the great question! These two expressions, How about…? and What about…?, are informal question starters that can be used in many of the same ways, as shown below. 

 

Same uses

1. How about…? and What about…?  can be used to ask whether someone/something is included:

  • “We’re all going to the beach.” “How about Kenny?” 
  • “The apartment has one bedroom, two bathrooms, a big kitchen, and a living room.” “What about closets?

2. How about…? and What about…? can be used to make a suggestion about what can be done:

  • “We’ll need to talk about this again.” “How about meeting next week? “ 
  • “It’s too early to call her now.” “What about sending her an email message?”

3. How about…? and What about…?  can be used to ask someone to respond to what you just said: 

  • I like skiing and hiking. How about you? 
  • I like skiing and hiking. What about you?
  • Everyone else is coming. What about you? 

 

Distinct uses

There are also some distinct uses of How about…? and What about …?, or uses that are not shared between them.

1. Only How about…? can be used to ask someone to give you something, or to ask someone if they will do something:

  • How about a couple of dollars until payday? [=can you loan me a couple of dollars until payday?]
  • How about offering me something to drink? [=will you offer me something to drink?]

1. Only What about…?  can be used to ask what should be done about something:

  • “You can throw this one away.” “What about the others?” [=what should we do about the others?][
  • What about people who can’t afford health insurance? 

 

Source: Merriam Webster’s Learner Dictionary


Under vs. Below


What is the difference between “under” and “below”?

Monday, July 29, 2013

Several readers have recently asked about the difference between the prepositions under and below, which are often interchangeable. 

Here are four facts about under and below that will help you understand the difference between these words and use them correctly:

1. Under is used much more widely. When you’re not sure which word to use, use under. It is more likely to be correct. 

2. All the common uses of below are related to the idea of “lower or less than,” as in these examples:

  • The sun disappeared below the horizon. 
  • Temperatures were below normal all week. 
  • The game is suitable for children below the age of 10. 
  • There are many more fish below the surface of the water.

3. Under can have the same meaning as below, as in these examples:

  • We sat under a tree and rested. (Or, We sat below a tree and rested.)
  • Draw a line under each word you don’t know. (Or, Draw a line below each word you don’t know.)

   but under can also mean “guided or controlled by,” as in: 

  • The cafe is under new management. 
  • The army captured three forts while under the general’s command. 
  • Under the terms of the lease, rent will be due on the first of each month.

 

4. Under is often used in expressions in which it has a special meaning. Look at the most common collocations with  under to see this more clearly:

  • Hudson tried to get her weight under control with drastic diets. [under control=able to be managed successfully]
  • Under normal circumstances, Steinmark might have wished to spend more time in Los Angeles [under normal circumstances=in a normal situation]
  • You have to be able to think under pressure, [under pressure=in a stressful situation]
  • Under the law, hospitals have to treat any patient who needs emergency medical attention. [under the law=according to the law]

 Source: Merriam-Webster’s Learner Dictionary


Then vs. Than


Doua cuvinte diferite cu doua sensuri diferite. Adesea se pierde din vedere than, fiind mai “la indemana” then.

Then – atunci, in cazul acesta

I remember seeing him then.

“I can’t come, I’m too busy. “ “Then you should stay home!”

Why didn’t you tell me then?

Then we shall never speak of this again.

 

Than – comparativ – decat

She is older than my sister.

She could have been nicer than that.

I can’t do more than this for you.

 

Daca ajuta, “rule of thumb”,

Theeeeeeen – treeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeecut

Thaaaaaaaaaaan – compaaaaaaaaaaaaar


Relative clauses – Change in meaning by using commas


Relative clauses sunt simple, introduse prin who, which, where etc. si in esenta reprezinta descrierea subiectului/definirea lui/specificarea lui.

 

The people who got on the bus were there on time.

The shop where I bought my shoes is not far from here.

Destul de clar, ma refer la oamenii care s-au urcat in autobuz si la magazinul de la care mi-am cumparat pantofii.

Dar, in cele doua cazuri de mai jos va exista acum o diferenta in sensul propozitiei:

(a)    The people who got on the bus were there on time.

(b)   The people, who got on the bus, were there on time.

 

In cazul (a) vorbim de oamenii care s-au urcat in autobuz si DOAR de acestia. Doar cei care s-au urcat au ajuns la timp. Se subintelege ca mai erau si altii, care nu s-au urcat in autobuz/nu au ajuns la timp. Pentru ca este vorba de un grup cunoscut aici, vorbim despre defining relative clause.

In cazul (b) vorbim despre toti care s-au urcat in autobuz, care toti s-au urcat si toti au ajuns la timp. Nu definim un grup de aceea vorbim de non-defining clause.

Incercati si voi cu urmatoarul exemplu:

 

The travellers who knew about the floods took another road.

The travellers, who knew about the floods, took another road.

 

 

 


Go up vs. go upstairs


upstairsadverb, meaning to an upper floor of a building or any place elevated or high.

Atunci inseamnca ca I’m going upstairs ma duc un etaj/mai multe etaje mai sus, urc la alt nivel etc. – schimb locatia

upadverb, adjective, preposition (also noun and verb), meaning in or into a higher position or level (as adverb) – indica directia

Si atunci ar fi logic sa nu le pot folosi la fel.

I’m going upstairs. – Ma duc sus, adica la etaj (poate am dormitorul la etaj).

I’m going up. – Ma duc sus (de exemplu cu liftul).

 

She’s upstairs. DAR NU – She is up.

Let’s go upstairs. DAR NU – Let’s go up.

We are moving up. DAR NU We are moving upstairs.


Both or Neither?


Both of them went to school today.

Both of them didn’t go to school today.

Care e corecta?

In cazul acesta, mergand pe logica (si pe potriveala cu limba romana),

both – implica doi din doi

neither – implica nici unul (din doi sau din mai multi)

Si atunci daca doi din doi, adica amandoi au facut ceva – both

Both went to school.

Both Mary and Thomas were late.

I saw them both.

Iar daca nici unul nu a facut ceva – neither (of the/m)

Neither of them went shopping.

Neither of the two won the prize.

Iar daca merg pe ideea de doua entitati separate, care nici una nu a facut ceva – nici nici – neither-nor

Neither Cathy nor Chris came to the party.

Neither of them knew about it.

So they both went to the movies.

 

 

 


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